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A Complete Guide of Hard Drive

What is a Hard Drive?

A computer’s hard drive (or a hard drive or HDD) is a type of technology that stores the operating system, applications, and data files such as documents, pictures, and music used by your computer. The rest of your computer’s components work together to show you the applications and files stored on your hard drive.

How Does a Hard Disk Drive Work?

A hard disk drive (HDD) consists of a platter that contains compartments for storing data. This data is your OS, applications, and any files you have formed. There is also an accumulator arm that moves across the platter to read or write the requested information. To speed up this process, the platter rotates as the accumulator’s arm moves across it.

The compartments containing the data can be distributed throughout the hard disk, and the data is not written sequentially. An indexing system allows the accumulator arm to find all the relevant data.

The accumulator plate and arm are delicate, so they are covered by a steel box, preventing hard drive damage under everyday situations.

What are the Benefits and Disadvantages of a Hard Disk Drive?

Hard drives are a proven technology that can hold a large amount of data (this varies depending on the size of the disk) and are relatively inexpensive. Under regular use, they are reasonably durable and work well.

However, there are drawbacks. Hard disk can be slow, especially when opening large files or applications. Because they don’t write data sequentially, data can become fragmented, with space within each compartment. This space is too small to use for data, but when space is added, it can take up a massive portion of the drive. Study how to defragment your hard disk.

Hard drives use a lot of commands and produce a lot of heat, making them less practical on smaller computers like laptops and notebooks. Under normal circumstances, hard drives are durable. But when hard drives are in laptops that can be dropped or bumped while the platter is spinning, the movement can become damaged so that end users can’t recover the data.

What is an External Hard Disk Drive?

An external storage disk is a discrete device that connects to a computer, usually through a USB port. While it doesn’t replace the need for an internal disk, an external disk gives you more storage space for backing up files, pictures, music, and more.

External drives are also portable; you can transfer them between computers. This makes it easier for you to share things like images.

What are the differences among internal and external hard disk drives?

What are the differences among internal and external hard disk drives_



Your computer must have at minimum one storage drive for it to work. Typically, the storage drive is internal, located in the computer case. Internal purposes come in various storage sizes and can be replaced if you run out of space.

You can configure a computer with an external drive in addition to the internal drive. An external drive is usually connected to the computer over a USB port. An external disk gives you more loading space for backing up files, pictures, music, or extensive records.

External drives are also portable; you can transfer them between computers. This makes it easier for you to portion things like images.

What are the Other Memory Storage Options?

Hard disk are just one type of storage. Solid-state drives (SSDs) are storage drives that perform the same functions as hard drives. SSDs use a different kind of technology than HDDs, more similar to the technology of a USB stick. This technology uses less electricity and generates less heat. SSDs also have no moving parts, making them more durable in portable applications. Learn more about the benefits of a solid-state drive here.

Solid-state drives are standard on most laptops and other portable computers today. You can easily convert an existing HDD into an SSD, and the Crucial® Advisor™ tool or system scan tool can help you find the correct SSD for your PC.

Every computer wants at least one storage drive to store the operating system, applications, and data files. Many storage units are hard drives, but there is another option, and adding an external storage drive is an easy way to expand your storage capabilities.

Why Does a PC Need a Hard Disk Drive?

A computer needs an operating system so that users can interact with and use it. The operating system understands keyboard and mouse movements and enables software such as Internet browsers, word processors, and video games. Installation of a computer operating system requires a hard disk (or another storage device). The storage device provides the storage medium on which the operating system is installed and stored.

A hard disk is also required to install programs or others files want to keep on your computer. When files are downloaded to your computer, they are permanently stored on your hard drive or other storage media until stimulated or uninstalled.

Can a PC Work Without a Hard Disk Drive?

Without a hard disk, a computer can power up and POST. Dependent on how the BIOS is organized, other boot devices in the boot order are also checked for the essential boot files. For example, if the USB device is recorded in your BIOS boot order, you can boot from a bootable USB flash drive on a diskless computer.

Examples of bootable flash drives are a Microsoft Windows installation disk, G Parted Live, Ubuntu Live, or UBCD. Computers also support booting over a network using a PXE (Pre-boot Execution Environment).

Hard Disk Drives in Modern Computers

Modern computers often use an SSD (Solid State Drive) as the primary storage device instead of a hard drive. HDDs are slower than SSDs when analyzing and writing data but offer more storage capacity for the price.

Although a hard disk can still be used as a computer’s primary storage, installing it as a secondary hard disk is standard. For example, the primary SSD can contain the operating system and installed software, and a secondary HDD can be used to store documents, downloads, and audio or video files.

What are the Sizes of Hard Disk Drives?

The hard disk can often store more data than any other drive, but its size can vary depending on drive type and age. Older hard disk ranged in size from several hundred MB (megabytes) to several GB (gigabytes). Fresher hard disk have a storage size of several hundred gigabytes to several TB (terabytes). Every year, new and improved technologies make it possible to increase the size of hard drive storage.

History of the Hard Disk Drive

IBM released its first hard disk on September 13, 1956. A hard disk was earliest used in the RAMAC 305 system with a storage volume of 5 MB and a price of about US$50,000 (US$10,000 per megabyte). The hard disk was made into the computer and could not be removed.

In 1963, IBM established the first changeable hard disk with a storage capacity of 2.6 MB.

IBM also developed the first hard disk with a gigabyte storage capacity in 1980, and it weighed 550 pounds and cost $40,000.

In 1983, the first 3.5-inch hard disk developed by Rodime was introduced, with a storage capacity of 10 MB.

Seagate was the first company to market a 7,200 RPM hard drive in 1992. Seagate introduced the first 10,000 RPM hard drive in 1996 and the first 15,000 RPM hard drive in 2000.


Both (HDD) “hard disk drive” and “hard drive” are correct and mean the same thing. However, we mention using the term “hard drive” in your writing or when describing a hard drive. The word “hard drive” helps to distinguish it from an SSD (solid-state drive), which contains no platters, disk-shaped components, or moving parts.

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